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Gottesman collaborated with Martin Gellert when he had just discovered DNA ligase, which is the core enzyme for DNA replication and repair. About a year later, Gellert took a vacation, which allowed Gottsman to independently pursue his research ideas. He also took over part of the course taught by Gellert at the NIH, which involved how DNA is transcribed and translated into protein. “Not only did I have this rare opportunity to become an independent researcher, but I also suddenly assumed a very important teaching responsibility. It was a wonderful experience for me,” Gottsman said.

After the project, Gottesman returned to Harvard, where he completed his undergraduate and medical research, completed his residency training, and began to serve as an assistant professor. But soon, he recalled that he “heard the NIH siren” and returned to the National Cancer Institute to start his own laboratory.

After the draft, the ATP application was rejected. The program no longer exists, but a similar program—the Medical Research Scholar Program—supports medical, dental, and veterinary students conducting research on the NIH campus. Gottesman said the agency is still working to “catch lightning in the bottle of this project.”

Today, some universities offer similar intensive courses. For example, Hall’s three-year plan supports approximately 20 junior researchers to develop independent research careers. Its funding comes from the NIH KL2 award, which is awarded to new clinicians for research. “In many ways,” she wrote, “the KL2 project provides similarly guided research training to the NIH project in institutions across the country.”

The Meyerhof Scholars Program has entered its 33rd year and it also has many elements of ATP, although its focus is on biomedical research as a whole, rather than translational or clinical research. The plan also includes a relatively large, closely-connected cohort of 50 to 60 people, with in-depth contact research at the pre-doctoral stage. According to Stowe Domingo University, scholars are five times more likely to obtain a PhD in science than students who were taken from the catalog but refused to participate.It is now used as a model for similar projects University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with Pennsylvania State University. Stowe.Domingo said the new plan is UC Berkeley, University of California San Diego, with Howard University It is also building a model based on it.

Nevertheless, the medical research profession has changed since the 1960s and 1970s. Today, a major obstacle is the debt burden of medical schools, which is usually in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. Debt can motivate young doctors to choose lucrative professions so that they can repay their loans. As a result, Hall writes, there is a lack of researchers who can combine clinical expertise with research investigations. She writes that in the United States, more than 20,000 people earn doctorate degrees in medicine each year, but only about 600 people earn doctorate degrees in medicine and research at the same time.

Hall writes that another challenge is that the dual career of management research is becoming more and more difficult with Take care of patients because it is more difficult to obtain research funding to support laboratories and there are more opportunities to focus on clinical care.

Since the research ecosystem is always changing, Azoulay uses the yellow beret study as a starting point for further research: rigorous research will compare training interventions in terms of time, cohort size, and other factors. “We hope that what people take away is not that you should copy what NIH did in the early 1970s,” Azoulay said. Rather, this analysis should inspire new experiments. “We hope that randomized controlled trials can be conducted in a world of scientific training and scientific funding,” he continued. “If we have a bee in our hat, it’s that.”

Disclosure: Viviane Callier serves as a contract statistician and supports some data analysis projects of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which is part of the National Institutes of Health.


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